Indian Moon Mission Pictures Show Triangular Pyramid Anomaly,
Indian Moon mission Chandrayaan-1, has transmitted more than 40,000 images of different types since its launch on October 22, 2008, which many even in ISRO believe is quite a record compared to the lunar flights of other nations.
ISRO officials estimated that more than 40,000 images have been transmitted by Chandrayaan's cameras in last 75 days, it worked out to nearly 535 images being sent daily.So it means almost 1pic/Mint.
They said some of these images have a resolution of up to five meters providing a sharp and clear picture of the Moon's surface. On the other hand, they said many images sent by some of the other missions had a 100-meter resolution only.They for sure hold a massive data and information regarding moon surface and craters.On November 26, the indigenous Terrain Mapping Camera, which was first activated on October 29, 2008, took shots of peaks along with carters.According to media reports "This came as a surprise to ISRO officials"
After going through all that information poring in media we looked at the one of the photo, taken by the Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mission,which comes straight from the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). Here's the link: ISRO official website and for our surprise one thing, the symmetry is quite remarkable, pay attention to all the mirrored details...not to mention the triangular shape: it's quite distinct. And if we believe the scale of the photograph according to its caption, 395 km., then the symmetrical object is at least 4kmx4km...a really big crater symmetry! And second one is Triangular Pyramid Anomaly.These photos (allegedly) come from the ISRO (Indian Space Research Organisation), not from NASA or the ESA.
NASA's Swift, Fermi Probe Fireworks From a Flaring Gamma-Ray Star
Feb. 10, 2009
WASHINGTON -- Astronomers using NASA's Swift satellite and Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope are seeing frequent blasts from a stellar remnant 30,000 light-years away. The high-energy fireworks arise from a rare type of neutron star known as a soft-gamma-ray repeater. Such objects unpredictably send out a series of X-ray and gamma-ray flares.
"At times, this remarkable object has erupted with more than a hundred flares in as little as 20 minutes," said Loredana Vetere, who is coordinating the Swift observations at Pennsylvania State University. "The most intense flares emitted more total energy than the sun does in 20 years."
The object, which has long been known as an X-ray source, lies in the southern constellation Norma. During the past two years, astronomers have identified pulsing radio and X-ray signals from it. The object began a series of modest eruptions on Oct. 3, 2008, then settled down. It roared back to life Jan. 22 with an intense episode.
Because of the recent outbursts, astronomers will classify the object as a soft-gamma-ray repeater -- only the sixth known. In 2004, a giant flare from another soft-gamma-ray repeater was so intense it measurably affected Earth's upper atmosphere from 50,000 light-years away.
Scientists think the source is a spinning neutron star, which is the superdense, city-sized remains of an exploded star. Although only about 12 miles across, a neutron star contains more mass than the sun. The object has been cataloged as SGR J1550-5418.
While neutron stars typically possess intense magnetic fields, a subgroup displays fields 1,000 times stronger. These so-called magnetars have the strongest magnetic fields of any known object in the universe. SGR J1550-5418, which rotates once every 2.07 seconds, holds the record for the fastest-spinning magnetar. Astronomers think magnetars power their flares by tapping into the tremendous energy of their magnetic fields.
"The ability of Fermi's gamma-ray burst monitor to resolve the fine structure within these events will help us better understand how magnetars unleash their energy," said Chryssa Kouveliotou, an astrophysicist at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. The object has triggered the instrument more than 95 times since Jan. 22.
Using data from Swift's X-ray telescope, Jules Halpern at Columbia University captured the first "light echoes" ever seen from a soft-gamma-ray repeater. Images acquired when the latest flaring episode began show what appear to be expanding halos around the source. Multiple rings form as X-rays interact with dust clouds at different distances, with closer clouds producing larger rings. Both the rings and their apparent expansion are an illusion caused by the finite speed of light and the longer path the scattered light must travel.
"X-rays from the brightest bursts scatter off of dust clouds between us and the star," Halpern said. "As a result, we don't really know the distance to this object as well as we would like. These images will help us make a more precise measurement and also determine the distance to the dust clouds."
NASA's Wind satellite, the joint NASA-Japan Suzaku mission, and the European Space Agency's INTEGRAL satellite also have detected flares from SGR J1550-5418.
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., manages the Swift satellite. It is being operated in collaboration with partners in the U.S., the United Kingdom, Italy, Germany and Japan. NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is an astrophysics and particle physics observatory developed in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy and with important contributions from academic institutions and partners in France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Sweden, and the U.S.
Oct. 30, 2008: During the time it takes you to read this article, something will happen high overhead that until recently many scientists didn't believe in. A magnetic portal will open, linking Earth to the sun 93 million miles away. Tons of high-energy particles may flow through the opening before it closes again, around the time you reach the end of the page.
"It's called a flux transfer event or 'FTE,'" says space physicist David Sibeck of the Goddard Space Flight Center. "Ten years ago I was pretty sure they didn't exist, but now the evidence is incontrovertible."
Indeed, today Sibeck is telling an international assembly of space physicists at the 2008 Plasma Workshop in Huntsville, Alabama, that FTEs are not just common, but possibly twice as common as anyone had ever imagined.
Right: An artist's concept of Earth's magnetic field connecting to the sun's--a.k.a. a "flux transfer event"--with a spacecraft on hand to measure particles and fields. [Larger image]
Researchers have long known that the Earth and sun must be connected. Earth's magnetosphere (the magnetic bubble that surrounds our planet) is filled with particles from the sun that arrive via the solar wind and penetrate the planet's magnetic defenses. They enter by following magnetic field lines that can be traced from terra firma all the way back to the sun's atmosphere.
"We used to think the connection was permanent and that solar wind could trickle into the near-Earth environment anytime the wind was active," says Sibeck. "We were wrong. The connections are not steady at all. They are often brief, bursty and very dynamic."
Several speakers at the Workshop have outlined how FTEs form: On the dayside of Earth (the side closest to the sun), Earth's magnetic field presses against the sun's magnetic field. Approximately every eight minutes, the two fields briefly merge or "reconnect," forming a portal through which particles can flow. The portal takes the form of a magnetic cylinder about as wide as Earth. The European Space Agency's fleet of four Cluster spacecraft and NASA's five THEMIS probes have flown through and surrounded these cylinders, measuring their dimensions and sensing the particles that shoot through. "They're real," says Sibeck.
Now that Cluster and THEMIS have directly sampled FTEs, theorists can use those measurements to simulate FTEs in their computers and predict how they might behave. Space physicist Jimmy Raeder of the University of New Hampshire presented one such simulation at the Workshop. He told his colleagues that the cylindrical portals tend to form above Earth's equator and then roll over Earth's winter pole. In December, FTEs roll over the north pole; in July they roll over the south pole.
Sibeck believes this is happening twice as often as previously thought. "I think there are two varieties of FTEs: active and passive." Active FTEs are magnetic cylinders that allow particles to flow through rather easily; they are important conduits of energy for Earth's magnetosphere. Passive FTEs are magnetic cylinders that offer more resistance; their internal structure does not admit such an easy flow of particles and fields. (For experts: Active FTEs form at equatorial latitudes when the IMF tips south; passive FTEs form at higher latitudes when the IMF tips north.) Sibeck has calculated the properties of passive FTEs and he is encouraging his colleagues to hunt for signs of them in data from THEMIS and Cluster. "Passive FTEs may not be very important, but until we know more about them we can't be sure."
There are many unanswered questions: Why do the portals form every 8 minutes? How do magnetic fields inside the cylinder twist and coil? "We're doing some heavy thinking about this at the Workshop," says Sibeck.
Meanwhile, high above your head, a new portal is opening, connecting your planet to the sun.
Discovered: Cosmic Rays from a Mysterious, Nearby Object
Nov. 19, 2008: An international team of researchers has discovered a puzzling surplus of high-energy electrons bombarding Earth from space. The source of these cosmic rays is unknown, but it must be close to the solar system and it could be made of dark matter. Their results are being reported in the Nov. 20th issue of the journal Nature.
"This is a big discovery," says co-author John Wefel of Louisiana State University. "It's the first time we've seen a discrete source of accelerated cosmic rays standing out from the general galactic background."
Right: An artist's concept of cosmic rays hitting Earth's upper atmosphere. Credit: Simon Swordy, University of Chicago. [Larger image]
Galactic cosmic rays are subatomic particles accelerated to almost light speed by distant supernova explosions and other violent events. They swarm through the Milky Way, forming a haze of high energy particles that enter the solar system from all directions. Cosmic rays consist mostly of protons and heavier atomic nuclei with a dash of electrons and photons spicing the mix.
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To study the most powerful and interesting cosmic rays, Wefel and colleagues have spent the last eight years flying a series of balloons through the stratosphere over Antarctica. Each time the payload was a NASA-funded cosmic ray detector named ATIC, short for Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter. The team expected ATIC to tally the usual mix of particles, mainly protons and ions, but the calorimeter found something extra: an abundance of high-energy electrons.
Wefel likens it to driving down a freeway among family sedans, mini-vans and trucks—when suddenly a bunch of Lamborghinis bursts through the normal traffic. "You don't expect to see so many race cars on the road—or so many high-energy electrons in the mix of cosmic rays." During five weeks of ballooning in 2000 and 2003, ATIC counted 70 excess electrons in the energy range 300-800 GeV. ("Excess" means over and above the usual number expected from the galactic background.) Seventy electrons may not sound like a great number, but like seventy Lamborghinis on the freeway, it's a significant surplus.
Above: ATIC high-energy electron counts. The triangular curve fitted to the data comes from a model of dark-matter annihilation featuring a Kaluza-Klein particle of mass near 620 GeV. Details may be found in the Nov. 20, 2008, edition of Nature: "An excess of cosmic ray electrons at energies of 300-800 Gev," by J. Chang et al. [Larger image]
"The source of these exotic electrons must be relatively close to the solar system—no more than a kiloparsec away," says co-author Jim Adams of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center.
Why must the source be nearby? Adams explains: "High-energy electrons lose energy rapidly as they fly through the galaxy. They give up energy in two main ways: (1) when they collide with lower-energy photons, a process called inverse Compton scattering, and (2) when they radiate away some of their energy by spiraling through the galaxy's magnetic field." By the time an electron has traveled a whole kiloparsec, it isn't so 'high energy' any more.
High-energy electrons are therefore local. Some members of the research team believe the source could be less than a few hundred parsecs away. For comparison, the disk of the spiral Milky Way galaxy is about thirty thousand parsecs wide. (One parsec approximately equals three light years.)
"Unfortunately," says Wefel, "we can't pinpoint the source in the sky." Although ATIC does measure the direction of incoming particles, it's difficult to translate those arrival angles into celestial coordinates. For one thing, the detector was in the basket of a balloon bobbing around the South Pole in a turbulent vortex of high-altitude winds; that makes pointing tricky. Moreover, the incoming electrons have had their directions scrambled to some degree by galactic magnetic fields. "The best ATIC could hope to do is measure a general anisotropy—one side of the sky versus the other."
Right: The ATIC cosmic ray detector ascends to the stratosphere tethered to a high-altitude research balloon. More launch images: #1, #2, #3.
This uncertainty gives free rein to the imagination. The least exotic possibilities include, e.g., a nearby pulsar, a 'microquasar' or a stellar-mass black hole—all are capable of accelerating electrons to these energies. It is possible that such a source lurks undetected not far away. NASA's recently-launched Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is only just beginning to survey the sky with sufficient sensitivity to reveal some of these objects.
An even more tantalizing possibility is dark matter.
There is a class of physical theories called "Kaluza-Klein theories" which seek to reconcile gravity with other fundamental forces by positing extra dimensions. In addition to the familiar 3D of human experience, there could be as many as eight more dimensions woven into the space around us. A popular yet unproven explanation for dark matter is that dark matter particles inhabit the extra dimensions. We feel their presence via the force of gravity, but do not sense them in any other way.
How does this produce excess cosmic rays? Kaluza-Klein particles have the curious property (one of many) that they are their own anti-particle. When two collide, they annihilate one another, producing a spray of high-energy photons and electrons. The electrons are not lost in hidden dimensions, however, they materialize in the 3-dimensions of the real world where ATIC can detect them as "cosmic rays."
"Our data could be explained by a cloud or clump of dark matter in the neighborhood of the solar system," says Wefel. "In particular, there is a hypothesized Kaluza-Klein particle with a mass near 620 GeV which, when annihilated, should produce electrons with the same spectrum of energies we observed."
Testing this possibility is nontrivial because dark matter is so, well, dark. But it may be possible to find the cloud by looking for other annihilation products, such as gamma-rays. Again, the Fermi Space Telescope may have the best chance of pinpointing the source.
"Whatever it is," says Adams, "it's going to be amazing."
For more information about this research, see "An excess of cosmic ray electrons at energies of 300-800 Gev," by J. Chang et al. in the Nov. 20, 2008, issue of Nature.
Anomalous X ray Pulsar & Interaction With The Earth
Anomalous X ray Pulsar, 1E 1547 0 5408 the Neutron Star and its effects from outburst on the Earth and its Magnetosphere. First proof of a connection has been found : http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kUUJYU68Zto
February 10th, 2009 Fermi, Swift spy outburst from gamma-ray star
NASA's Swift satellite and Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have keyed in on a rowdy stellar remnant 30,000 light-years away. The object, already known as a source of pulsing radio and X-ray signals, lies in the southern constellation Norma. It kicked out some moderate eruptions in October, but then it settled down again. Late last month, it roared to life.
"At times, this remarkable object has erupted with more than a hundred flares in as little as 20 minutes," said Loredana Vetere, who is coordinating the Swift observations at Pennsylvania State University. "The most intense flares emitted more total energy than the sun does in 20 years."
Did NASA's Stereo Behind watch the Jupiter Ignition?
Feb 14, 2009, 07:36
Hi everyone, somebody posted this list of mpg (movie) fils from NASA to AHS. I haven't reviewed them because of being on dialup, but I will attempt to look at one of them, if it downloads ok. First try froze my ISP window. I have received an email from one of our readers this morning say these are great, so I am posting them. Stereo are two satellites that are in orbit around the sun with earth, and have gradually spread to greater distances. One is "behind" and the other is "ahead." These appear to be from "behind." They now as of January view at 90 degress off from earth. I may look to see if there is an archive of still pics to look at. I once attempted this at the Stereo website, but the images are not stored on the website at all. And then I forgot to look elsewhere in all my excitement.
February 17 2009 by Sorcha Faal Global Meteor Fireball ‘Storm’ Blamed For British-French Nuclear Sub Collision
An interesting report circulating in the Kremlin today written by Russian space expert Igor Lisov is stating that our World is in danger of having a ‘catastrophic’ earthquake within the fortnight due to a ‘major gravitational anomaly’ now occurring in our Solar System out past the orbit of the Planet Jupiter he says is being caused by the mysterious newly discovered http://www.sciam.com/blog/60-second-...ays-2009-01-30
Comet Lulin and which this reports states is ‘steering’ tens of thousands of the http://meteorshowersonline.com/showe...a_leonids.html
Leonid space debris field into our Earth’s path causing Meteor Fireball reports to occur all around the Globe these past few weeks.
Dr. Scientist Lisov further states in his report that the Meteor Fireball reported over Sweden, and reported to have crashed into the Northern Atlantic, could ‘very likely’ have been responsible for the January, 2009 collision of a British Nuclear Submarine with a French Nuclear Submarine operating in that region due to the ‘enormous gravity distortion’ caused by its entry into our Earth’s atmosphere and rendering these submarines unable to determine their location.
To the collision of these Western Powers nuclear submarines we can read:
“Nuclear submarines from Britain and France collided deep in the Atlantic Ocean this month, authorities said Monday in the first acknowledgment of a highly unusual accident that one expert called the gravest in nearly a decade.
Officials said the low-speed crash did not damage the vessels' nuclear reactors or missiles or cause radiation to leak. But anti-nuclear groups said it was still a frightening reminder of the risks posed by submarines prowling the oceans powered by radioactive material and bristling with nuclear weapons.
The first public indication of a mishap came when France reported in a little-noticed Feb. 6 statement that one of its submarine had struck a submerged object — perhaps a shipping container. But confirmation of the accident only came after British media reported it.”
To the January, 2009 Meteor Fireball reported over Sweden we can further read:
“A huge fireball streaked across the southwestern skies of Sweden early Saturday evening. Gothenburg (or Göteborg) SOS and air rescue service was inundated with reports of a fireball in the sky around 8pm Saturday Jan 17th.”
“Comet Lulin, named after the observatory in Taiwan where the discovery-photo was taken, is now approaching Earth. "It is a green beauty that could become visible to the naked eye any day now,"
The comet makes its closest approach to Earth (0.41 AU) on Feb. 24, 2009. Current estimates peg the maximum brightness at 4th or 5th magnitude, which means dark country skies would be required to see it. No one can say for sure, however, because this appears to be Lulin's first visit to the inner solar system and its first exposure to intense sunlight. Surprises are possible.
Lulin's green color comes from the gases that make up its Jupiter-sized atmosphere. Jets spewing from the comet's nucleus contain cyanogen (CN: a poisonous gas found in many comets) and diatomic carbon (C2). Both substances glow green when illuminated by sunlight in the near-vacuum of space”.
To Dr. Scientist Lisov’s greatest concern, however, that he voices in his reports, is that not just to the pieces of the Leonid space debris field being ‘pushed’ into our Planet, but that ‘pieces’ of this new Green Comet are hitting us also, and which seem to be supported by http://www.spaceweather.com/glossary...q8438otde8e6p0
witness reports, and some of which we can read:
Location: near Mt. Vernon, Kentucky
Connie Thompson: "Just to give you an update on the green light in the sky last night shortly after 10:00 I was driving home along US150 E just out of Mt. Vernon (in Rockcastle County), when the world appeared to explode - in green. For 2-3 seconds the entire night sky was lit up with a strange green light. My first thought was any minute now, I'll see a mushroom cloud, but then I thought that is ridiculous. I kept telling my self that it was just lightening, but I have never seen green lightening. I didn't feel the earth shake, however that just happened to be the song playing on the radio at the time (haha). Please do keep us informed about what caused this strange event. "
Location: Morehead State University, Morehead, Kentucky
Daniel Graves, a space science major at MSU: "I was in Morehead at the time of the fireball, we were actually making observations of a distant AGN with our 21m radio telescope, and I had just stepped outside to check on cloud cover in the direction we were observing; clouds can attenuate the radio signal slightly, so we have to know where it is and compensate for it. When I saw the fireball I instantly assumed that it was debris. I've seen other satellite debris before (last years ASAT test in February). The coloring and sound matched nearly dead on. The fireball took about 7 seconds to cross the sky, rather slow compared to other things I've seen. It was definitely ablating material; it looked like a burning bright-white magnesium filament."
Location: Lexington, Kentucky
Bill Meck, WLEX-TV Chief Meteorologist: "About 10:00 est Friday night we began to receive several calls from people throughout central and eastern Kentucky of a loud boom which was strong enough to shake houses over an area about 30 miles wide centered near London Kentucky. What appeared to be either a fireball or a piece of satellite debris was seen as a blue/green streak across the sky from as far north as Paris and Lexington Kentucky…about 70 miles from London. An Emergency Manager in the area said the FAA confirmed it was satellite debris…but would like to have better confirmation. The reports also say it was on a more vertical trajectory compared to the normal 'shooting star.'"
Location: Mayking, Kentucky
Candace Philpot: "Tonight, about 10:15 p.m., my son and I saw a blueish-green fireball in the sky. My husband said that it was probably just a shooting star, but it looked very different and did not shoot across the sky, rather it fell from the sky. It landed someone over our neighbor's home, probably somewhere up in the woods. We dismissed it after a few minutes of conversation, but this was definitely something to see. It was large and blueish-green; looked similar to a comet."
Virtually unknown to the masses of people around the World are that Comets remain nearly unknown to modern scientists, and recent warnings show even more concerns are being raised about them, and as we can read as reported by Britain’s Telegraph News Service in their report titled http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sciencean...-to-earth.html
“Unseen dark comets 'could pose deadly threat to earth'”, and which says:
“Unseen "dark" comets could pose a deadly threat to earth, astronomers have warned. The comets, of which there could be thousands, are not currently monitored by observatories and space agencies. Most comets and asteroids are monitored in case they start to travel towards earth.
But Bill Napier, from Cardiff University, said that many could be going by unnoticed. "There is a case to be made that dark, dormant comets are a significant but largely unseen hazard," he said
Scientists estimate that there should be around 3,000 comets in the solar system, but only 25 have so far been identified. "Dark" comets happen when the water on their surface has evaporated, causing them to reflect less light.
Astronomers have previously spotted comets heading towards earth just days before they passed. In 1983 a comet called IRAS-Araki-Alcock passed at a distance of just 5 million kilometres, the closest of any comet for 200 years, but it was noticed just a fortnight beforehand.”
But, to our greatest interest in this report is its providing further evidence supporting the ancient legends of these Comet ‘gods’ return and the havoc they will wreck upon our Earth, and as we have exampled many times, including our May 3, 2006 report http://www.whatdoesitmean.com/index903.htm
“Comet Nearing Earth Fuels Pandemic Fears Of Russian Scientists As United States Nears Civil War” and which now, three years later, is showing its prophetic power as the US nears its final collapse.
Scientists See Supernova in Action
By DENNIS OVERBYE
Published: May 22, 2008
A star trembled on the brink of eternity. Outwardly all was serene, but its inside was falling into chaos.
Far away on the day of Jan. 9, Earth time, a satellite telescope by the name of Swift, which happened to be gazing at the star’s galaxy, a smudge of stars 88 million light-years away in the constellation Lynx, recorded an unexpected burst of invisible X-rays 100 billion times as bright as the Sun.
Supernova 2007uy in the galaxy NGC2770 was already several weeks old on January 7, 2008 when NASA's Swift satellite took the image at left. The image on the right was taken two days later and shows Supernova 2008D as well.
Alicia Soderberg, a Princeton astronomer who had been using the NASA satellite to study the fading remains of a previous supernova explosion, received the startling results of that observation by e-mail while giving a talk in Michigan. Recognizing that this was something extraordinary, she sounded a worldwide alert.
In the following hours and days, as most of the big telescopes on Earth, and the Hubble Space Telescope and the Chandra X-ray Observatory watched from space, the star erupted into cataclysmic explosion known as a supernova, lighting up its galaxy and delighting astronomers who had never been able to catch an exploding star before it exploded.
“We caught the whole thing on tape, so to speak,” Dr. Soderberg said in an interview. “I truly won the astronomy lottery. A star in the galaxy exploded right in front of my eyes.”
She and 42 colleagues from around the world have now told the tale of this discovery in a paper in Nature to be published Thursday and in a telephone news conference Wednesday. The observations, they say, provide a new window into the process by which the most massive stars end their lives and give astronomers new clues on how to look for these rare events and catch them while they are still in their most explosive, formative stages.
Most supernovas, Dr. Soderberg explained, are discovered and classified by their visible light, but that typically does not happen until the explosion is a month or more old and has brightened enough to be seen over intergalactic distances.
The true fireworks, she said, happen much earlier when a shock wave from the imploding core hits the star’s surface, producing so-called breakout light, which lasts only a few minutes.
“The physics of the explosion is encoded in the breakout light,” Dr. Soderberg said, adding that the chance that the Swift telescope was observing during those moments was “unfathomable.” Astronomers now know, however, that X-rays from the breakout can be an early alert. “Supernova 2008D was the first to be found from its X-ray emission,” said Robert Kirshner, a supernova expert at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, referring to the supernova by its official name, “but if we build the right type of X-ray satellites, it won’t be the last supernova we find this way.”
“That is really what is so wonderful here,” he said.
So new were the X-rays, said Dr. Soderberg, that she and her collaborators did not know they were looking at an incipient supernova until a day or two later and ground-based telescopes had seen it grow in visible light.
“It was a baby supernova in that sense,” Dr. Soderberg said. “Here was an object brand new. At first we didn’t recognize it.”
The supernova was of a sort known as Type Ibc, the rarest and most luminous of the explosions caused by the collapse of the cores of massive stars, the astronomers have concluded. Another kind, known as Type Ia supernovas, are believed to result from the destruction of much smaller stars and are beloved of cosmologists who use them to track the expansion of the universe and effects of dark energy.
The star that died last January could have been 20 times as massive as the Sun or even bigger, Dr. Soderberg said. It was probably a type called a Wolf-Rayet star. They are very hot stars with surface temperatures of 50,000 degrees Fahrenheit or more and are often blowing gas away in strong winds. Dr. Soderberg described them as “very violent stars, very massive.”
Because it is gravity that stokes the thermonuclear furnace at the centers of stars, the more massive they are, the younger they die. In the case of a star 10 or 20 times as massive as the Sun, it could be only a few million years. “These stars live fast and die young. We don’t know if they leave a beautiful corpse,” Dr. Kirshner said.
Many of the elements necessary for life and its accessories, like carbon, oxygen, iron and gold, are produced in a thermonuclear frenzy during the final stages of these explosions, which then fling them into space to be incorporated into new stars, new planets, new creatures.
“If you’re wearing gold jewelry,” Dr. Kirshner said, “it came from a supernova explosion.”
Or as Joni Mitchell sang poetically and accurately, “We are stardust.”